Culverts are openings beneath roads and railroad lines generally constructed out of stone. They were used where a full fledged bridge was unnecessary. Culverts originally were built to form a dry, hard surface over small streams. Later on with railroads crisscrossing farm lands animal underpasses were added. Most culverts are below the road surface. Hence, soil was built up over culverts reinforcing their stability and longevity. Culverts did not require maintenance on annual basis as does a bridge. Culverts range from stones slabs laid across a stream to walled and roofed openings.
Large flat stone slabs were laid atop low stones. This allows water flowage underneath and creates a solid firm surface across the stream. Water softened earth on edges of either side of culvert were paved with flat stones.